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The gender gap in U.S. business leadership remains shockingly wide. Today, 57.6% of all bachelors' and higher degrees are awarded to women, including 54.2% of social science and law degrees, and 43.5% of science and mathematics degrees. But, despite their academic prowess, women find their careers stalled before they reach top management. In 2012, women held 16.6% of seats on Fortune 500 boards. One-tenth of the Fortune 500 had no women at all on their boards. Recently, U.S. activists, scholars, and policy makers have turned their attention to one notable effort to address the gender gap in management: gender quotas for corporate boards of directors. Twelve European countries have pioneered quotas in this context.

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