Richard Frankel


On November 5, 1996, California voters chose to end racial preferences by the state in public employment and higher education by passing Proposition 209. This statewide ballot initiative was the first initiative in which state citizens spoke out on the issues of preferences and affirmative action. Passing with almost fifty-five percent of the vote, the result was seen as a triumph of direct democracy reflecting the voice of the people in calling for an end to affirmative action.

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