On March 31, 2004, the International Court of Justice ("ICJ" or "World Court") issued its ruling in Avena and Other Mexican Nationals (Mex. v. US.). The World Court held that various states within the United States had violated the rights of fifty-one Mexican nationals. The states had failed to notify the Mexican citizens of their rights, under the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, to contact Mexican consulates. By unanimous vote, the World Court then required that the United States "shall provide, by means of its own choosing, review and reconsideration of the conviction[s] and sentence[s]" at issue. Mexico, in turn, indicated that it expected the United States to abide by the World Court decision.

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