Violence has become an increasingly serious problem in many developing countries. According to a recent (2011) World Bank World Development Report, entitled Conflict and Development: Overcoming Conflict and Fragility, security is a “primary development challenge of our time.” In addition to traditional forms of urban violence, new threats have emerged such as organized crime and trafficking, civil unrest due to global economic shocks, and terrorism. One and a half billion people live in areas affected by fragility, conflict, or organized criminal violence.
 The World Bank, “Conflict, Security, and Development,” World Development Report 2011 (Washington: The World Bank, 2011), 1.
 Ibid, 3.
Prado, Mariana Mota; Trebilcock, Michael; and Hartford, Patrick, "POLICE REFORM IN VIOLENT DEMOCRACIES IN LATIN AMERICA" (2012). SELA (Seminario en Latinoamérica de Teoría Constitucional y Política) Papers. Paper 105.