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Events during the bicentennial year of the United States Constitution focused America's attention on the way in which that document both authorizes and structures an ongoing institutional struggle for dominance in the realm of foreign affairs. As the year progressed, constitutional clashes between the President and Congress spilled across the spectrum of U.S. foreign policymaking-covert operations, warmaking, arms control, foreign assistance, immigration, international human rights, emergency economic power, and international trade-even as those clashes marched across the front pages of the New York Times.

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