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The class suit, if properly defined and implemented, continues to have
great social and legal utility. For example, its use ofthe injunctive remedy in
the field of civil rights is hardly disputable. The class suit is also a useful
remedy for situations in which there are many claimants to a limited fund.
However, difficulties have arisen in "(b)(3)" class suits-suits in which the
claims are entirely, or primarily, for money but do not involve a limited fund. l
Familiar examples include the attempted asbestos personal injury class suits,
claims based on misrepresentation in the securities markets, suits alleging
improper financial practices by financial institutions such as banks and
insurance companies, and other "consumer" claims. Many consumer claims
class suits arise from what can be described generically as ''private toll booth"
cases, in which an operator has positioned itself to realize illegal profit in
hundreds or thousands of transactions witp customers. Some employment
discrimination cases are also claims for money, although in manyemployment
cases an injunctive remedy is also sought.

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