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It could easily be argued that the most important topic in international
law is the law of remedies. The subject includes both the sanctions that
are imposed following a breach of international substantive norms, and
the system of institutions designed to investigate violations and then impose
those sanctions. The fact that norms governing international conduct
lack a secure centralized enforcement mechanism leaves the
international system vulnerable to the accusation that international law
is not really "law" at all. For this reason, scholars of the subject have
addressed with great seriousness the question of whether an adequate
system of sanctions, formal or informal, exists.

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