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The common law appears to have no counterpart to the German doctrine of culpa in contrahendo: that contracting parties are under a duty, classified as contractual, to deal in good faith with each other during the negotiation stage, or else face liability, customarily to the extent of the wronged party's reliance. In this comparative study Professor Kessler and Mrs. Fine find, however, that notions of good faith and fair dealing are frequently expressed in the American contract law affecting preliminary negotiations, firm offers, mistake, and misrepresentation, and that the doctrines of negligence, estoppel, and implied contract, among others, have at the same time served many of the doctrinal functions of culpa in contrahendo.

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