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In the study and the practice of the law, our constant problem is: what legal relations are the result of facts that occur; or, starting from the other direction with a given set of legal relations (such as a contract, or a debt, or the ownership of land) our problem is: what facts will operate to cause such a results? One may take either starting point; and indeed for the best results, it is necessary to take both, alternately working forward and back, correcting and amplifying our necessary tentative conclusions. In the present article, the starting point will be the contractual relations themselves, leading back to a consideration of some of the facts and intermediate relations that various forms?

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