31 Philosophical Topics 485 (2003)
It's a child's problem: we see objects as oriented correctly, both up-down and left -right, despite the fact that our retinal images of them are inverted in both respects; how can this be? The reason it is a child's problem is that the explanation is so easy: there is no reason to think that the properties of our retinal images should correspond to the content of the visual experiences they cause. Our retinal images are tiny; we see things as much larger. Our retinal images are uniformly the color of the retina; we see things as possessing a diversity of colors. None of these discrepancies, including the discrepancy in orientation, are unexpected, and so none genuinely problematic.
Date of Authorship for this Version
Yaffe, Gideon, "Berkeley and the ‘Mighty Difficulty’: The Idealist Lesson of the Inverted Retinal Image" (2003). Faculty Scholarship Series. 3729.