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In 1956, it was not exactly illegal to be a "homosexual" in the United States, but it was a felony to make love to anyone of the same sex, and mere suspicion of homosexuality could cost a citizen her livelihood. Dr. Franklin Kameny, a Harvard-educated (Ph.D.) astronomer, was arrested in August of that year for allegedly soliciting sex from an undercover police officer. Because the charges were expunged after a probationary period, Kameny's application for a position with the Army Map Service identified the incident as one in which the plea was "not guilty" and the charge was "dismissed." This description of the incident was technically correct under state law, but when the Army learned of the underlying charge, it concluded that Kameny had not been sufficiently forthcoming. The Army dismissed him, and the Civil Service Commission ("CSC") barred him from federal employment for several years. The employment bar also automatically prevented Kameny from obtaining security clearances needed for virtually any private sector job in his field.
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