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Thank you, Colonel Brown, for your kind invitation to speak here today at this very

important conference on “the roles of cyber in national defense.” I have been an

international lawyer for more than thirty years, a government lawyer practicing

international law for more than a decade, and the State Department’s Legal Adviser

for nearly 3ó years. While my daily workload covers many of the bread and butter

issues of international law—diplomatic immunity, the law of the sea, international

humanitarian law, treaty interpretation—like many of you, I find more and more of

my time is spent grappling with the question of how international law applies in


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