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Policies to control corruption will always be controversial and contested. Those subject to increased surveillance or limits on their discretion will bewail the lack of trust these constraints imply. They will complain that the new controls are politically motivated and that they fail to respect cultural norms. These objections will be particularly evident when anti-corruption measures are imposed or supported by international actors - most notably aid and lending bodies, global non-profits, or international treaty regimes. The role of international institutions is necessarily limited, given the dominant position of nation-states. Nevertheless, well-executed efforts can benefit ordinary people and may help, rather than harm, domestic and global businesses. The losers are those who benefited from corrupt transactions both in government and in the private sector.

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