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Rabbi Freundel writes about ethical norms in the Hebrew Bible that arose, either from God's direct command or implicitly from His actions, and established a model for human conduct. Near the end of his essay, however, he shifts focus to discuss occasions in the Hebrew Bible when human beings "challeng[e] God ... with ethical thinking.' In this response, I want to focus on these extraordinary occasions. Two related possibilities seem to follow from these occasions, at least so far as the Hebrew Bible is concemed: First, the possibility that God is not the source of all moral norms; Second, that human beings can be independent authors of moral norms - or can have independent capacity to recognize moral norms-that bind God Himself.

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