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On December 31, 1979, the United Nations Security Council, at the initiative of the United States, adopted Resolution 461. It deplored the continued detention of the U.S. hostages in Iran and called on the Government of the Islamic Republic to secure their release. Operative paragraph 6 of the resolution stated that the Council would meet on January 7, 1980, "in order to review the situation and, in the event of non-compliance with this resolution, to adopt effective measures under Articles 39 and 41 of the Charter of the United Nations." As the hostages had not been released, the United States on January 10, 1980, submitted draft resolution S/13735 to the Security Council detailing a sanctions program against Iran. The question was called on January 13. Ten members voted for the resolution, whereupon it was vetoed by the Soviet Union.

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