The past decades have seen the emergence of a "corporate social

responsibility agenda" in response to public and activist criticism of "the

impact of transnational corporations (TNCs) in developing countries and

on the environment." This agenda has emerged against the backdrop of

shifting perceptions of how the market, the state, and civil society function

and ought to function. One prominent version of this agenda has been the

World Bank's advocacy of "good governance" as a "persuasive ethical

power that allows for [corporate] self-regulation, making it possible for

governments to intervene less intrusively and more efficiently in society."

Voluntary adherence by corporations to good business practices and

ethical behavior is a cornerstone of this advocacy, and its most recent

incarnation arises in the arena of rural development, focusing on access to

land and taking the form of proposals for a Code of Conduct for land