European citizenship establishes a precedent whereby the exercise and

protection of rights - the practice of citizenship - is no longer contingent

on residency within the jurisdiction of national citizenship. Free

movement rights have allowed European citizens to cross borders and

participate more nearly as political and legal equals within the host

society. At the same time, however, European citizenship has largely

failed to account for the past or future migration of third-country

nationals (TCNs) - those who are not citizens of any Member State - into

or within the European Union. As a result, the creation of European

citizenship has arguably had the unfortunate side effect of further

distinguishing and excluding TCNs from the emerging European society.

This Note argues that the current legal status of TCNs hinders successful

diversity management by individual Member States, undermines

European integration, and deprives TCNs of fundamental rights. The

Note proposes that European citizenship should be expanded to allow

TCNs to acquire European citizenship without the simultaneous

authority over the citizenship status of TCNs would benefit the project of

migrant integration into local, national, and transnational societies and

help further the democratization of European governance. In addition, a

redefined European citizenship could trigger a fundamental rethinking of

national citizenship, potentially undermine the destructive influence of

the extreme right, and, perhaps, lead to a more complete decoupling of the

political and legal content of citizenshipfrom the idea of nation.