Debate over the universality of human rights has typically focused on the

extent to which international human rights law differs from local cultural practices

and has generally sought to resolve these differences in favor of the international

paradigm. Less attention, however, has been given to arguments that the

international human rights paradigm may have something to learn from non-

Western legal systems. This Article focuses on one such area: the

conceptualization of individual duties to the community. In conventional human

rights law, rights are explicit, while corresponding duties are often implicit,

controversial, and poorly theorized. In contrast, the Islamic legal tradition offers a

sophisticated paradigm of common ideals grounded in individual duties. The

Article argues that a reconciliation of the rights-based and duties-based paradigms

is both possible and necessary to render justiciable third generation "solidarity"

rights, such as the right to development, the right to a healthy environment, and

the right to peace.