The past two years have seen a substantial proliferation in international trade liberalization agreements. Even as the World Trade Organization (WTO) has continued to expand its membership, there has been a remarkable increase in other bilateral and multilateral trade agreements. The United States, in particular, has been actively pursuing bilateral agreements around the world-from recently signed agreements with Chile and Singapore to continued negotiations with Morocco, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, and other countries.

Concomitant to this trend are concerns about how WTO member nations will be able to import or produce affordable pharmaceuticals without violating trade policies. This has led to extensive debate at WTO ministerial meetings, in academic journals, among non-governmental organizations, and even in domestic courtrooms. As a result, heightened attention is now being paid to the question of how - and, perhaps, whether-countries can successfully protect their health interests while expanding free trade.