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Many people expected the elimination of racial stereotypes and job barriers to improve economic conditions for both African American men and women in the labor market. Even as legal victories have opened new and better-paying jobs for African American workers, however, the level of poverty among African American families headed by working women has remained unaffected. Most of the industries newly opened to African Americans through litigation have been industries primarily employing men. African American women-who are overrepresented in service jobs, which pay less than professional or manufacturing jobs-have thus not benefitted equally from these victories in the courtroom. Historical and continuing differences between the occupations in which the majority of men and the occupations in which the majority of women in the United States work demand that different strategies be identified that will benefit both African American men and women.

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