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Globalization and trade continue to pose significant challenges for economic and industrial development in both developed and developing nations. Critics of globalization have highlighted its negative consequences for increasing economic inequality, capital migration, and loss of industrial jobs to other nations. Over the past decade, these dynamics have arguably fueled nationalist populist movements that have given rise to Brexit in the European Union, the election of Donald Trump, and rising nationalism and protectionism in other nations. These trends reflect growing discontent with globalization and the economic dislocation it has caused for industrial workers and broader domestic concerns about how the international economic order privileges globalization over national interests and sovereignty. In particular, the World Trade Organization (WTO) and international trade law regime continue to pose significant challenges for developing nations’ policy autonomy to pursue a variety of development strategies and presents challenges for development, national sovereignty, and democracy.

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