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In a lecture delivered in May, 1978, Hans Morgenthau, one of the founders of a modem theory of power in international relations, declared that power politics must be replaced as the intellectual basis for the conduct of American foreign policy. With nuclear weapons that make possible the destruction of mankind, power politics has become fatally dangerous as a basis for foreign policymaking. Ultimately it will lead to a suicidal Third World War. According to Morgenthau, the only alternative to this scenario is the formation of a world government. For the immediate future, however, and as part of the process leading to the foundation of a world government, states must actively participate in the creation of functionally oriented international organizations able to cope with primary concerns in international relations. Through a process of gradual integration, the development of a larger number of specialized international organizations could eventually lead to the formation of a world government. International law must play an important role during this transition. Here Morgenthau joined the camp of the "functional-integrationist" school of international political science.

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