More than eighty years after federal law first addressed stock market manipulation, federal courts remain fractured by disagreement and confusion about manipulation law's most foundational questions. Only last year, plaintiffs petitioned the Supreme Court to resolve a sharp split among the federal circuits concerning manipulation law's central question: whether trading activity alone can ever be considered illegal manipulation under federal law. Academics have been similarly confused economists and legal scholars cannot agree on whether manipulation is possible in principle; let alone on how, if it is, to address it properly in practice.

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