Bridges are the "black holes" of the American legal system. Consider that workers have the right to unionize and force collective bargaining in both Pennsylvania and New Jersey, while workers on many bridges between Pennsylvania and New Jersey do not enjoy such a right. New York and New Jersey both have anti-discrimination laws, but those laws do not apply to people working on bridges between the two states. Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia have all adopted freedom of information laws, but the agency that operates rail bridges between them is not subject to any of those policies. These paradoxes stem from the fact that the entities in control of many trans-state resources-entities such as the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey --often exist in a state of legal limbo.

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