This article analyzes recent attempts by the United States government to restrict the release of scientific and technical information in particular research conducted under the auspices of universities- to foreign nationals. Until quite recently, the government's virtually exclusive instrument for restricting transfers of information was classification. On grounds of national security, certain information was classified as secret, to be revealed only to a comparatively small group of people, those with "clearance" and a "need to know."
Controls on Scientific Information Exportst,
Yale L. & Pol'y Rev.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/ylpr/vol3/iss2/7