In the 1940s and 1950s, the administrative state served as a powerful engine of discrimination against homosexuals, with agency officials routinely implementing anti-gay policies that reinforced gays' and lesbians' subordinate social and legal status. By the mid-1980s, however, many bureaucrats had become incidental allies, subverting statutory bans on gay and lesbian foster and adoptive parenting and promoting gay-inclusive curricula in public schools.
"Bureaucratic Agency: Administering the Transformation of LGBT Rights,"
Yale Law & Policy Review: Vol. 36
, Article 3.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/ylpr/vol36/iss1/3