International human rights advocacy has traditionally been defined by the claims of persecuted individuals or groups against states. The post-WWII recognition of individuals as legal rights-bearers in the international arena ushered in an era of human rights institution-building to address the grievances of affected persons. In a typical case, an individual or group deprived of rights sues the state in a forum designed to hear such claims, a classic vertical and unidirectional demand.
Novogrodsky, Noah, "Sideways Advocacy" (2013). SELA (Seminario en Latinoamérica de Teoría Constitucional y Política) Papers. 127.