Democratic republicanism has been the banner of major events like the French Revolution or the Spanish Republic, and now inspires changes underway in Venezuela, Bolivia and Ecuador. The socialist movement, like Jacobinism, is part of this republican heritage and its struggles for democracy and the political concept of fraternity: reciprocity in equality is freedom. Antidemocratic republicanism based on the exclusion of indigenous, black and mestizo majorities, as well as the free poor, was, in contrast, what was established in Latin American oligarchic republics after independence from Spain.
Guanche, Julio César, "Citizen participation in the Cuban State" (2014). SELA (Seminario en Latinoamérica de Teoría Constitucional y Política) Papers. 150.